To the uninitiated, gardening seems to be all about plants. Certainly each of the seemingly infinite variety of trees, shrubs, flowers, vegetables and grasses is fascinating. Artfully combining them to create landscapes and gardens is challenging and rewarding. However, to the initiated, gardening is really all about soil.
It is easy to take soil for granted. After all, soil is almost everywhere. It literally comes with the territory when you buy a home or property. Soil may be largely dense sticky clay, thin gritty sand, or powdery silt. (Only the truly fortunate discover loose woodsy loam in the yard.) Whichever type, this existing soil constitutes the planting medium for the garden on the property. To improve its ability to support and nourish plants gardeners strive to improve its structure and boost its fertility. Fortunately, there is an abundant, inexpensive magic ingredient that makes this job a lot easier – humus.
Humus creates soil
It is not a coincidence that the word “humus” is part of every gardener’s vocabulary and that compost piles, one source of humus, are part of their gardens. Humus transmutes sterile dirt into fertile soil. Derived from organic matter of all kinds, humus is the life support system of soil. The presence of humus among mineral particles and air spaces enables soil to nurture plants two ways. Humus creates a loose structure that simultaneously holds moisture and drains well. Humus also creates an environment that supports living organisms that convert soil nutrients into a form plant roots can use, building soil fertility. In short, humus brings soil to life.
In nature humus is constantly introduced into soil as plant debris, dead animals, and other organic matter that decomposes on the ground. Through the alchemy of bacteria, fungi, and other resident micro-life activity, this organic material is reduced by degrees to its soft, spongy essence, called humus. It permeates the top few inches of the soil through rains, and the good offices of earthworms and other macro-organisms, where it continually revitalizes the soil around plant roots. This natural cycle is repeated over the seasons out in the wild, sustaining the great forests and other natural areas. Where there is lots of vegetation to decay and enrich the soil, such as in woodland areas, the soil is rich in humus and very fertile. Where there is little or no vegetation to provide the organic debris, such as at the seashore or in the desert, the soil has little or no humus and is lean, infertile.
In developed areas, such as residential yards and gardens, where the-natural vegetation has been removed or disturbed, this natural decay cycle is disrupted. Organic matter such as leaves, dried plant parts, prunings, animal remains, manures, and other debris is routinely removed before it can recycle into the soil. Intensive planting of crops, turf grasses, and ornamental plants rapidly depletes soil of its existing humus content. Bare soil in garden beds is exposed to the harsh effects of sun, wind, and hard rains, which further reduce its humus content and destroy its structure and fertility. To grow plants successfully gardeners must emulate nature and constantly renew the soil by adding the depleted ingredient, humus.
Humus solves soil problems
There is no such thing as perfect soil. Every soil has problems in structure, texture, and/or chemistry that compromise its ability to nurture plants. The best way to confirm suspected soil problems is to submit a soil sample for laboratory analysis through the local agricultural cooperative extension office. Their computer printouts profile the soil content and structure, pinpointing deficiencies. Fortunately, the addition of organic matter, or humus, can mitigate many of these problems. Here are six -soil problems that can be addressed by adding humus.
Compaction: Good soil is loose and crumbly because it has lots of air spaces. Plant roots are able to penetrate soil deeply for extended drought resistance and stability. Air is also essential to the micro-life that lives on its organic content and processes its nutrients to create fertility. Typically soil in a home landscape is compacted, the air compressed from it by the weight of foot traffic, construction, mechanical yard care equipment, and harsh weather. To reduce compaction, regularly add humus in the form of a top-dressing to existing lawns. Spread a mulch of some organic material on bare soil in beds and under trees and shrubs year round. Dig in compost, peat moss or the like into garden beds when planting to improve aeration.
Sandy soil: Sandy soil has large particles with large air spaces between them. Therefore, it drains so quickly that it dries out quickly. Also, water-soluble nutrients leach out rapidly before the plants can use them. Humus incorporated into sandy soil acts like a sponge, absorbing and holding moisture and any nutrients dissolved in it. Replenish the humus content of sandy soil at every opportunity.
Clay soil: Clay soils are so thick because they have small particles with correspondingly small air spaces between them. They tend to stick together and cause water to fill up the air spaces. Since moisture does not drain from this soil well, plant roots rot. Adding humus to clay soils discourages the small particles from sticking so tightly. They aggregate into larger clumps creating larger spaces that drain more easily and hold air to improve soil texture.
Fluctuating pH levels: The acidity or alkalinity of soils, expressed as pH, affects how accessible their nutrients are to plants. Reduced acidity (pH higher than 8.0) inhibits the uptake of iron, boron, copper and other elements necessary for plant health. Excessive acidity (pH lower than 6.0) discourages plant absorption of other nutrients. Alter pH levels by adding either sulfur to increase acidity or limestone to reduce acidity in amounts indicated by soil test results. Because humus buffers soil against changes in its pH, adding lots of organic matter to the soil will help maintain desirable pH levels.
Pest insects, disease pathogens in soil: Soil rich in humus is alive. It supports active microorganisms to process nutrients and harbors beneficial macro-organisms such as ants and ground spiders that prey on soil-dwelling pest larvae and eggs. Humus creates a soil environment that supports beneficial nematodes and also bacteria such as milky spore that homeowners introduce into lawns to combat white grubs. Many other resident microbes attack and control disease pathogens that lurk in the soil. Top-dressing and mulching lawns and gardens with organic material such as chopped leaves, compost or shredded bark products discourages soil pest problems.
Infertile soil: Soil becomes sterile over time as its humus content is reduced by hot weather, removal of topsoil, or intense cultivation without replacement of organic matter. The number and activity of micro-organisms in the soil is depleted. In their absence the production of nutrients in the soil is severely curtailed and it becomes sterile. While fertilizer provides nutrients to plants, it does not solve a soil fertility problem. Supporting resident micro-life in the soil is the long-term solution. Topdressing lawns and perennial beds with humus and incorporating it into cultivated soil every year provides a home for these organisms so they can assure soil fertility.
Composting: Making humus
Carbon material + Nitrogen material + Air + Moisture = Compost
The secret ingredient in this recipe is the micro life – bacteria, fungi, and other tiny organisms, which live on the surfaces of organic material. Acting as an elaborate food chain within a pile of yard and garden waste, they decompose it as they eat and reproduce. Pile some moist carbon material (dried, brown materials such as fallen leaves or straw) either alone or with a much smaller proportion of nitrogen material (moist, green stuff such as vegetable peelings, fresh weeds, or grass clippings) and let it happen. With sufficient air the organ-isms thrive, generating heat within the pile. Eventually the assembled yard waste is reduced to soft, dark, humus.